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Title: VLSI Watermark Implementations and Applications
Authors: Shoshan, Yonatan
Fish, Alexander
Li, Xin
Jullien, Graham
Yadid-Pecht, Orly
Keywords: Watermark
CMOS sensors
image sensors
mixed-signal circuits
fast prototyping
Issue Date: 2008
Publisher: Institute of Information Theories and Applications FOI ITHEA
Abstract: This paper presents an up to date review of digital watermarking (WM) from a VLSI designer point of view. The reader is introduced to basic principles and terms in the field of image watermarking. It goes through a brief survey on WM theory, laying out common classification criterions and discussing important design considerations and trade-offs. Elementary WM properties such as robustness, computational complexity and their influence on image quality are discussed. Common attacks and testing benchmarks are also briefly mentioned. It is shown that WM design must take the intended application into account. The difference between software and hardware implementations is explained through the introduction of a general scheme of a WM system and two examples from previous works. A versatile methodology to aid in a reliable and modular design process is suggested. Relating to mixed-signal VLSI design and testing, the proposed methodology allows an efficient development of a CMOS image sensor with WM capabilities.
ISSN: 1313-048X
Appears in Collections:Volume 2 Number 4

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